IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


16th September, 2022 International Relations

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Context:  On the Occasion of Mexico National Day (16th September), India extended its greetings and felicitations to all Mexico Nationals and commemorated the 72 years of the establishment of diplomatic relations.


  • India-Mexico relations have consistently been friendly, warm and cordial, characterised by mutual understanding and growing bilateral trade and all-round cooperation.
  • Antipodes as they are on the globe, they have striking similarities and commonalities - of geography, history, physiognomy, culture and civilisation, even of attitudes, mindsets and values of the people.
  • Both countries are large emerging economies, with similar socio-economic development priorities and constraints, and have democratic, secular, and pluralistic systems, as well as convergent worldviews.
  • Both are at somewhat comparable levels of economic and technological development, and are members of the important G-20.
  • Mexico was the first Latin American country to recognize India after her independence, and both established diplomatic relations in 1950.
  • Mexican wheat variety Sonora was instrumental in India’s Green Revolution.
  • Mexicans in general have high interest and regard for Indian culture, political resilience, social values, and particular admiration for India’s economic, education, scientific and technological achievements of the recent years.
  • Indian heroes like Gandhi, Nehru, Tagore, and Mother Teresa are widely held in high esteem. The writings of Nobel-Laureate and Indophile Octavio Paz, Mexico’s envoy to India in the sixties, with his long years in India, significantly impacted Mexico’s view of India.
  • Political: Impelled by their commonalities, convergence of worldviews, and an issues-free relationship, India and Mexico have collaborated together closely on most major global issues, such as nuclear disarmament, climate change, trade, and global economic architecture. They elevated their ties to ‘Privileged Partnership’ during President Calderon’s state visit to India in 2007. There have also been several high-level visits
  • Economic and Commercial:
  • India-Mexico bilateral trade had grown to US$10.15 billion in 2018 as per data from the Mexican Ministry of Economy, an unprecedented 20% increase against 2017, while also becoming the 9th biggest trade partner of Mexico.
  • In 2019 the trade contracted by 8.17% reaching the figure of US$ 9.32 billion with Indian imports of US$ 4.14 billion and exports US$ 5.18 billion.
  • India is the tenth largest trading partner of Mexico. The trade balance has remained in favour of India for the 8th consecutive year.
  • Investments: Indian companies see Mexico as a major investment destination with access to NAFTA (now USMCA) and Latin America.
  • Cultural: An agreement on cultural cooperation has been in existence since 1975 and cooperation activities are carried out through four-yearly ‘Programmes of Cultural Cooperation’ under the framework of this agreement. ICCR offers four scholarships to Mexican scholars every year. India was the Guest of Honour country at the 46th Cervantino International Festival held in October 2018, the biggest cultural festival in the entire Hispanic world.
  • Indian Community: The Indian community (PIOs/NRIs) in Mexico is small, numbering about 6500 with about one fifth of them in Mexico City.
  • Major Bilateral Agreements:
  • Cultural Agreement (1975)
  • Agreement for Cooperation in Science & Technology (1975)
  • Cultural Exchange Programme (2005)
  • Educational Exchange Programme (2005)
  • Agreement on Visa Exemption on Diplomatic & Official Passports (2005)
  • Extradition Treaty (2007)
  • Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty in Criminal Matters (2007)
  • Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (2007)
  • Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (2007)
  • MOU on cooperation in the field of Promotion & Protection of Human Rights (Mar 2014)
  • MoU between ISRO and the Mexican Space Agency on Space Cooperation for Peaceful Purposes (October 2014)