IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


21st December, 2022 POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

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In News

  • Social Progress Index (SPI) for States and Districts made by the Institute for Competitiveness and Social Progress Imperative was released recently.

Social Progress Index (SPI)

  • SPI is a comprehensive tool to measure a country's social progress at the national and sub-national levels.
  • The index evaluates states and districts based on 12 components across 3 critical dimensions of social progress;
    • Basic Human Needs: It assesses the performance of states and districts in terms of Nutrition and Basic Medical Care, Water and Sanitation, Personal Safety and Shelter.
    • Foundations of Wellbeing: It assesses the progress made by the country across the components of Access to Basic Knowledge, Access to Information and Communication, Health and Wellness, and Environmental Quality.
    • Opportunity: It concentrates on Personal Rights, Personal Freedom and Choice, Inclusiveness, and Access to Advanced Education.
  • The index uses an extensive framework comprising 89 indicators at the state level and 49 at the district level.
  • Based on the SPI scores, states and districts have been ranked under 6 tiers of social progress;
    • Tier 1: Very High Social Progress
    • Tier 2: High Social Progress
    • Tier 3: Upper Middle Social Progress
    • Tier 4: Lower Middle Social Progress
    • Tier 5: Low Social Progress
    • Tier 6: Very Low Social Progress

Key Points of the Index

  • Puducherry, Lakshadweep, and Goa emerge as best-performing states.
  • Aizawl (Mizoram), Solan (Himachal Pradesh), and Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) are the top 3 best-performing districts.
  • Puducherry has the highest SPI score (65.99) in the country, attributable to its remarkable performance across components like Personal Freedom and Choice, Shelter, and Water and Sanitation.
    • Jharkhand and Bihar scored the lowest, 43.95 and 44.47, respectively.
  • For the dimension of Basic Human Needs; Goa, Puducherry, Lakshadweep, and Chandigarh are the top four states with the best performance in Water and Sanitation and Shelter as compared to the other states and union territories.
  • Goa has the highest component score for Water and Sanitation.
  • Kerala scored the highest across the Nutrition and Basic Medical Care components.
  • Delhi has topped the list for Access to Information and Communication.
  • For Health and Wellness, Rajasthan has the highest score.
  • Tamil Nadu has achieved the highest component score for the Opportunity dimension.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands have the highest component score for Personal Rights.
  • Sikkim has topped the list for Inclusiveness.