IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


3rd October, 2022 Art & Culture

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Context: The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has paid floral tributes to Mahatma Gandhi on his Jayanti at Rajghat.


  • 2nd October is the 153rd birth anniversary of the Father of the Nation - Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Gandhi was a social reformist and leader of Indian Independence Movement who introduced the idea of nonviolent resistance called Satyagrah.
  • He was born in Porbandar (Gujarat)
  • In South Africa (1893-1915), he had successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called satyagraha.
  • The International Day of Non-Violence is observed on 2nd October, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • He returned to India from South Africa on 9th January 1915.
  • In 1916 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
  • In 1917, he organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.
  • In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
  • In 1919, he decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
  • At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.
  • In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident.
  • In 1930, Gandhiji declared that he would lead a march to break the salt law.
  • In 1931, Gandhi accepted a truce (the Gandhi-Irwin Pact), called off civil disobedience, and agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress.
  • Quit India Movement was launched in 1942 with the slogan do or die.
  • He worked for the upliftment of untouchables and gave them a new name 'Harijan' meaning the children of God.
  • He founded the Hindustani Prachar Sabha in 1942 at Wardha in Maharashtra.
  • Books Written: Hind Swaraj, My Experiments with Truth (Autobiography)
  • He was shot dead by Nathuram Godse on 30th January, 1948. 30th January is observed as Martyrs' Day.


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