Daily News Analysis

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)                                                                               

4th January, 2022 International News

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Context:  China, Russia, U.S., U.K., France five global nuclear powers pledged to prevent atomic weapons spreading and to avoid nuclear conflict, in joint statement ahead of a review of a key nuclear treaty.


Joint statement content:

  • Further spread of such weapons must be prevented.
  • A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.
  • Nuclear weapons — for as long as they continue to exist — should serve defensive purposes, deter aggression, and prevent war


Significance of this declaration:

  • It would reduce level of international tensions currently growing between U.S. and Russia.
  • Help to revive nuclear deal with Iran.


About Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)

  • It is an international treaty.
  • Objectives:
    • To prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology
    • To promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and
    • To achieve nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
  • Entered in force in 1970.
  • Parties to the treaty: 191 states have become parties to the treaty, though North Korea, which acceded in 1985 but never came into compliance, announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003.
  • Non- signatory states: Four UN member states have never accepted the NPT, three of which possess or are thought to possess nuclear weapons: India, Israel, and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan, founded in 2011, has not joined.
  • Defines nuclear-weapon states: States that have built and tested a nuclear explosive device before 1 January 1967; these are the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China.
  • The treaty is reviewed every five years in meetings called Review Conferences.


Why India is reluctant to sign this treaty?

  • India did not sign NPT because it found NPT a flawed treaty with no basis of recognizing states which should have the nuclear energy.