Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
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Context: China, Russia, U.S., U.K., France five global nuclear powers pledged to prevent atomic weapons spreading and to avoid nuclear conflict, in joint statement ahead of a review of a key nuclear treaty.
Joint statement content:
- Further spread of such weapons must be prevented.
- A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.
- Nuclear weapons — for as long as they continue to exist — should serve defensive purposes, deter aggression, and prevent war
Significance of this declaration:
- It would reduce level of international tensions currently growing between U.S. and Russia.
- Help to revive nuclear deal with Iran.
About Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
- It is an international treaty.
- To prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology
- To promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and
- To achieve nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
- Entered in force in 1970.
- Parties to the treaty: 191 states have become parties to the treaty, though North Korea, which acceded in 1985 but never came into compliance, announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003.
- Non- signatory states: Four UN member states have never accepted the NPT, three of which possess or are thought to possess nuclear weapons: India, Israel, and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan, founded in 2011, has not joined.
- Defines nuclear-weapon states: States that have built and tested a nuclear explosive device before 1 January 1967; these are the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China.
- The treaty is reviewed every five years in meetings called Review Conferences.
Why India is reluctant to sign this treaty?
- India did not sign NPT because it found NPT a flawed treaty with no basis of recognizing states which should have the nuclear energy.